Rolling circle amplification (RCA) is a powerful tool for the construction of DNA nanomaterials such as hydrogels, high-performance scaffolds and DNA nanoflowers (DNFs), hybrid materials formed of DNA and magnesium pyrophosphate. Such DNA nanomaterials have great potential in therapeutics, imaging, protein immobilisation, and drug delivery, yet limited chemistry is available to expand their functionality. Here, we present orthogonal strategies to produce densely modified RCA products and DNFs. We provide methods to selectively modify the DNA component and/or the protein cargo of these materials, thereby greatly expanding the range of chemical functionalities available to these systems. We have used our methodology to construct DNFs bearing multiple surface aptamers and peptides capable of binding to cancer cells that overexpress the HER2 oncobiomarker, demonstrating their potential for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
Nucleic Acids Res