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The impact of different patterns of glioblastoma (GBM) recurrence has not yet been fully established in patients suitable for a second surgery. Through the present observational study carried out at Pisa University Hospital, we aimed to investigate how different patterns of GBM failure influence second surgery outcomes. Overall survival (OS) and post-recurrence survival (PRS) were assessed according to clinical characteristics, including pattern of recurrence, in a prospective cohort of recurrent GBM patients. Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test was applied to evaluate the differences between curves. Patients with local recurrence had better OS than patients with non-local one, 24.1 versus 18.2 months, respectively [P = 0.015, HR = 1.856 (1.130-3.050)]. The second surgery conferred an advantage in OS respect to non-operated patients, however, this advantage was more evident in patients with local recurrence [P = 0.002 with HR 0.212 (95% CI 0.081-0.552) and P = 0.029 with HR = 0.522 (95% CI 0.291-0.936), respectively]. The recurrence pattern can influence the outcome of patients with recurrent GBM suitable for a second surgery.

Original publication




Journal article


Acta Neurol Belg

Publication Date





441 - 446


Glioblastoma, Pattern of failure, Recurrent glioblastoma, Second surgery, Brain Neoplasms, Cohort Studies, Glioblastoma, Humans, Neoplasm Recurrence, Local, Prospective Studies, Retrospective Studies