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The effect of cis-diaminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin) DNA damage on the repair of double-strand breaks by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) was determined using cell-free extracts. NHEJ was dramatically decreased when plasmid DNA was damaged to contain multiple types of DNA adducts, along the molecule and at the termini, by incubation of DNA with cisplatin; this was a cisplatin concentration-dependent effect. We investigated the effect a single GTG cisplatination site starting 10 bp from the DNA termini would have when surrounded by the regions of AT-rich DNA which were devoid of the major adduct target sequences. Cisplatination of a substrate containing short terminal 13-15 bp AT-rich sequences reduced NHEJ to a greater extent than that of a substrate with longer (31-33 bp) AT-rich sequences. However, cisplatination at the single GTG site within the AT sequence had no significant effect on NHEJ, owing to the influence of additional minor monoadduct and dinucleotide adduct sites within the AT-rich region and owing to the influence of cisplatination at sites upstream of the AT-rich regions. We then studied the effect on NHEJ of one cis-[Pt(NH3)2{d(GpTpG)-N7(1),-N7(3)} [abbreviated as 1,3-d(GpTpG)] cisplatin adduct in the entire DNA molecule, which is more reflective of the situation in vivo during concurrent chemoradiation. The presence of a single 1,3-d(GpTpG) cisplatin adduct 10 bases from each of the two DNA ends to be joined resulted in a small (30%) but significant decrease in NHEJ efficiency. This process, which was DNA-dependent protein kinase and Ku dependent, may in part explain the radiosensitizing effect of cisplatin administered during concurrent chemoradiation.

Original publication

DOI

10.1093/nar/gki528

Type

Journal article

Journal

Nucleic Acids Res

Publication Date

2005

Volume

33

Pages

2531 - 2539

Keywords

AT Rich Sequence, Base Sequence, Cell Extracts, Cisplatin, DNA Adducts, DNA Damage, DNA Repair, Humans, Molecular Sequence Data, Oligonucleotides, Plasmids, Recombination, Genetic