Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

The ARF (Alternative Reading Frame) protein is encoded in the Ink4a locus of human chromosome 9 that is frequently mutated in cancer cells. It was recently demonstrated that ARF is induced in response to DNA damage and inhibits, by direct interaction, the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mule that regulates p53 protein levels. Mule inhibition leads to p53 accumulation and activates cellular DNA damage responses. Mule has also recently been identified as a major E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in the regulation of DNA base excision repair. In this review, we will summarise the major properties of Mule and ARF and their roles in the coordination of DNA repair and DNA replication.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





2831 - 2835


Animals, DNA, DNA Damage, DNA Polymerase beta, DNA Repair, DNA Replication, Humans, Models, Genetic, Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF, Tumor Suppressor Proteins, Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases