The tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZD6474 blocks proliferation of RET mutant medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.
Vitagliano D., De Falco V., Tamburrino A., Coluzzi S., Troncone G., Chiappetta G., Ciardiello F., Tortora G., Fagin JA., Ryan AJ., Carlomagno F., Santoro M.
Oncogenic conversion of the RET tyrosine kinase is a frequent feature of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). ZD6474 (vandetanib) is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of RET, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors kinases. In this study, we have studied ZD6474 mechanism of action in TT and MZ-CRC-1 human MTC cell lines, carrying cysteine 634 to tryptophan (C634W) and methionine 918 to threonine (M918T) RET mutation respectively. ZD6474 blunted MTC cell proliferation and RET, Shc and p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Single receptor knockdown by RNA interference showed that MTC cells depended on RET for proliferation. Adoptive expression of the ZD6474-resistant V804M RET mutant rescued proliferation of TT cells under ZD6474 treatment, showing that RET is a key ZD6474 target in these MTC cells. Upon RET inhibition, adoptive stimulation of EGFR partially rescued TT cell proliferation, MAPK signaling, and expression of cell-cycle-related genes. This suggests that simultaneous inhibition of RET and EGFR by ZD6474 may overcome the risk of MTC cells to escape from RET blockade through compensatory over-activation of EGFR.