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RATIONALE: Several guidelines exist that address treatment of patients with nonmetastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). However, most only briefly mention follow-up strategies for patients and hence the treating physician is often left to infer on what the preferred follow-up schema would be for an individual patient. Herein, we aim to synthesize recommendations for follow-up of patients with MIBC for easy reference. METHODS: A multidisciplinary MIBC expert panel from the International Bladder Cancer Network was assembled to critically assess currently available major guidelines on surveillance of MIBC patients. Recommendations for follow-up were extracted and critically evaluated. Important considerations for guideline assessment included both aspects of oncological and functional follow-up-frequency of visits, the use of different imaging modalities, the role of cytology and molecular markers, and the duration of follow-up. OUTCOME: An International Bladder Cancer Network expert consensus recommendation was constructed for the follow-up of patients with MIBC based on the currently available evidence-based data.

Original publication




Journal article


Urol Oncol

Publication Date





423 - 431


Bladder cancer, Disease management, Follow-up, Guidelines, Muscle invasive, Consensus, Disease Management, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Male, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms