Tumour hypoxia is significantly correlated with patient survival and treatment outcomes. At the molecular level, hypoxia is a major driving factor for tumour progression and aggressiveness. Despite the accumulative scientific and clinical efforts to target hypoxia, there is still a need to find specific treatments for tumour hypoxia. In this review, we discuss a variety of approaches to alter the low oxygen tumour microenvironment or hypoxia pathways including carbogen breathing, hyperthermia, hypoxia-activated prodrugs, tumour metabolism and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) inhibitors. The recent advances in technology and biological understanding reveal the importance of revisiting old therapeutic regimens and repurposing their uses clinically.
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