Ionizing Radiation Drives Key Regulators of Antigen Presentation and a Global Expansion of the Immunopeptidome.
Tailor A., Estephan H., Parker R., Woodhouse I., Abdulghani M., Nicastri A., Jones K., Salatino S., Muschel R., Humphrey T., Giaccia A., Ternette N.
Little is known about the pathways regulating MHC antigen presentation and the identity of treatment-specific T cell antigens induced by ionizing radiation. For this reason, we investigated the radiation-specific changes in the colorectal tumor cell proteome. We found an increase in DDX58 and ZBP1 protein expression, two nucleic acid sensing molecules likely involved in induction of the dominant interferon response signature observed after genotoxic insult. We further observed treatment-induced changes in key regulators and effector proteins of the antigen processing and presentation machinery. Differential regulation of MHC allele expression was further driving the presentation of a significantly broader MHC-associated peptidome postirradiation, defining a radiation-specific peptide repertoire. Interestingly, treatment-induced peptides originated predominantly from proteins involved in catecholamine synthesis and metabolic pathways. A nuanced relationship between protein expression and antigen presentation was observed where radiation-induced changes in proteins do not correlate with increased presentation of associated peptides. Finally, we detected an increase in the presentation of a tumor-specific neoantigen derived from Mtch1. This study provides new insights into how radiation enhances antigen processing and presentation that could be suitable for the development of combinatorial therapies. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD032003.