Peroxisomal β-oxidation enzyme, DECR2, regulates lipid metabolism and promotes treatment resistance in advanced prostate cancer.
Mah CY., Nguyen ADT., Niijima T., Helm M., Dehairs J., Ryan FJ., Ryan N., Quek L-E., Hoy AJ., Don AS., Mills IG., Swinnen JV., Lynn DJ., Nassar ZD., Butler LM.
BACKGROUND: Peroxisomes are central metabolic organelles that have key roles in fatty acid homoeostasis. As prostate cancer (PCa) is particularly reliant on fatty acid metabolism, we explored the contribution of peroxisomal β-oxidation (perFAO) to PCa viability and therapy response. METHODS: Bioinformatic analysis was performed on clinical transcriptomic datasets to identify the perFAO enzyme, 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase 2 (DECR2) as a target gene of interest. Impact of DECR2 and perFAO inhibition via thioridazine was examined in vitro, in vivo, and in clinical prostate tumours cultured ex vivo. Transcriptomic and lipidomic profiling was used to determine the functional consequences of DECR2 inhibition in PCa. RESULTS: DECR2 is upregulated in clinical PCa, most notably in metastatic castrate-resistant PCa (CRPC). Depletion of DECR2 significantly suppressed proliferation, migration, and 3D growth of a range of CRPC and therapy-resistant PCa cell lines, and inhibited LNCaP tumour growth and proliferation in vivo. DECR2 influences cell cycle progression and lipid metabolism to support tumour cell proliferation. Further, co-targeting of perFAO and standard-of-care androgen receptor inhibition enhanced suppression of PCa cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: Our findings support a focus on perFAO, specifically DECR2, as a promising therapeutic target for CRPC and as a novel strategy to overcome lethal treatment resistance.