Phase I trial of intravesical Suramin in recurrent superficial transitional cell bladder carcinoma.
Ord JJ., Streeter E., Jones A., Le Monnier K., Cranston D., Crew J., Joel SP., Rogers MA., Banks RE., Roberts ISD., Harris AL.
Suramin is an antitrypanosomal agent with antineoplastic activity, but with serious systemic side effects. We administered Suramin intravesically to determine a concentration with low toxicity but with evidence of a pharmacodynamic effect, to recommend a dose level for phase II trials. This was an open-labelled, non-randomized dose-escalation phase I study. In all, 12 patients with a history of recurrent superficial bladder cancer were grouped into four dose levels (10-150 mg ml(-1) in 60 ml saline). Six catheter instillations at weekly intervals were used. Cystoscopy and biopsy were performed before and 3 months after the start of treatment. Suramin was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and urinary protein profile using surface-enhanced laser desorption ionisation mass spectroscopy (SELDI). Minimal systemic absorption of Suramin was found at the highest dose of 150 mg ml(-1). Urinary VEGF was affected by Suramin at doses above 50 mg ml(-1), corresponding to the estimated threshold of saturation of Suramin binding to urine albumin. SELDI showed a specific disappearance of urinary protein peaks during treatment. Intravesical Suramin shows lack of toxicity and low systemic absorption. The results of this phase I trial support expanded clinical trials of efficacy at a dose of 100 mg ml(-1) intravesically.