Pre-metastatic niches: organ-specific homes for metastases.
Peinado H., Zhang H., Matei IR., Costa-Silva B., Hoshino A., Rodrigues G., Psaila B., Kaplan RN., Bromberg JF., Kang Y., Bissell MJ., Cox TR., Giaccia AJ., Erler JT., Hiratsuka S., Ghajar CM., Lyden D.
It is well established that organs of future metastasis are not passive receivers of circulating tumour cells, but are instead selectively and actively modified by the primary tumour before metastatic spread has even occurred. Sowing the 'seeds' of metastasis requires the action of tumour-secreted factors and tumour-shed extracellular vesicles that enable the 'soil' at distant metastatic sites to encourage the outgrowth of incoming cancer cells. In this Review, we summarize the main processes and new mechanisms involved in the formation of the pre-metastatic niche.