A phase I study on the reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) in vivo: nifedipine plus etoposide.
Philip PA., Joel S., Monkman SC., Dolega-Ossowski E., Tonkin K., Carmichael J., Idle JR., Harris AL.
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the mechanisms of resistance to multiple cytotoxic drugs and is mediated by the expression of a membrane pump called the P-glycoprotein. Nifedipine is one of the calcium channel blocking agents which reverses MDR in vitro. Fifteen patients with various malignancies received nifedipine at three dose levels: 40 mg, 60 mg and 80 mg orally twice daily for 6 days. Etoposide was administered intravenously on day 2 in a dose of 150-250 mg m-2 and orally 150-300 mg twice daily on days 3 and 4. Cardiovascular effects of nifedipine were dose limiting and the maximum tolerated dose was 60 mg bid. Mean area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC0-00) and plasma half-life (beta) of nifedipine and its major metabolite MI at the highest dose level were 7.87 microM.h, 7.97 h and 4.97 microM.h, 14.0 h respectively. Nifedipine did not interfere with the pharmacokinetics of etoposide.