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BACKGROUND: Real-world studies of the emergency reversal of warfarin using 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) report unwarranted delays. The delay to receiving PCC was ≥ 8 h in 46·7% of patients with warfarin-associated bleeding (PWAB) treated with a variable PCC dosing protocol in our retrospective audit. OBJECTIVE: To report the impact of a simplified PCC dosing protocol on the interval to reversal of anticoagulation. METHODS: We developed a PCC dosing protocol standardising the initial PCC dose and simplifying dosing calculations. Study end points were the proportion of PWAB achieving international normalised ratio (INR) ≤1·5 and treated within 8 h of presentation, respectively. RESULTS: Of 17, 15 (88·2%) PWABs achieved a post-treatment INR ≤ 1·5; 14 of 17 (82·4%) PWABs were reversed within 8 h. Median intervals between triage and PCC request and PCC request and start of infusion (administration interval) were 126 min (range 39-520) and 30 min (range 5-100), respectively. Compared with the retrospective cohort, RAPID is associated with an improved administration interval (mean 37·7 vs 76 min, P = 0·031) and the proportion of PWABs treated within 30 min (58·8 vs 6·7%, P = 0·009). CONCLUSION: The RAPID protocol reduces unwarranted delays without compromising efficacy.

Original publication




Journal article


Transfus Med

Publication Date





66 - 71


administration delay, prothrombin complex concentrate, warfarin reversal, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Blood Coagulation Factors, Female, Humans, International Normalized Ratio, Male, Middle Aged, Retrospective Studies, Time Factors, Warfarin