MAP Kinases and Prostate Cancer.
Rodríguez-Berriguete G., Fraile B., Martínez-Onsurbe P., Olmedilla G., Paniagua R., Royuela M.
The three major mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38, JNK, and ERK are signal transducers involved in a broad range of cell functions including survival, apoptosis, and cell differentiation. Whereas JNK and p38 have been generally linked to cell death and tumor suppression, ERK plays a prominent role in cell survival and tumor promotion, in response to a broad range of stimuli such as cytokines, growth factors, ultraviolet radiation, hypoxia, or pharmacological compounds. However, there is a growing body of evidence supporting that JNK and p38 also contribute to the development of a number of malignances. In this paper we focus on the involvement of the MAPK pathways in prostate cancer, including the less-known ERK5 pathway, as pro- or antitumor mediators, through their effects on apoptosis, survival, metastatic potential, and androgen-independent growth.