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Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are essential mediators of the cellular oxygen-signaling pathway. They are heterodimeric transcription factors consisting of an oxygen-sensitive alpha subunit (HIF-alpha) and a constitutive beta subunit (HIF-beta) that facilitate both oxygen delivery and adaptation to oxygen deprivation by regulating the expression of genes that control glucose uptake, metabolism, angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. In most experimental models, the HIF pathway is a positive regulator of tumor growth as its inhibition often results in tumor suppression. In clinical samples, HIF is found elevated and correlates with poor patient prognosis in a variety of cancers. In summary, HIF regulates multiple aspects of tumorigenesis, including angiogenesis, proliferation, metabolism, metastasis, differentiation, and response to radiation therapy, making it a critical regulator of the malignant phenotype.

Original publication

DOI

10.1038/cdd.2008.21

Type

Journal article

Journal

Cell Death Differ

Publication Date

04/2008

Volume

15

Pages

678 - 685

Keywords

Adaptation, Physiological, Animals, Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors, Cell Differentiation, Cell Hypoxia, Cell Proliferation, Energy Metabolism, Humans, Hypoxia, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit, Neoplasm Invasiveness, Neoplasm Metastasis, Neoplasms, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Oxygen, Signal Transduction