Megavoltage Radiosensitization of Gold Nanoparticles on Glioblastoma Cancer Cell Line Using a Clinical Platform
Kazmi F., Vallis K., Vellayappan B., Bandla A., Yukun D., Carlisle R.
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have demonstrated significant dose enhancement with kilovoltage (kV) X-rays however recent studies have shown inconsistent findings with megavoltage (MV) X-rays. We proposed to evaluate the radiosensitization effect in U87 glioblastoma (GBM) cells in the presence of 42 nm GNPs and irradiated with a clinical 6 MV photon beam. Cytotoxicity and radiosensitization was observed using MTS and clonogenic cellular radiation sensitivity assays respectively. Sensitization enhancement ratio was calculated for 2 Gy (SER2Gy) with GNP (100 μg/mL). Dark field and MTS assay revealed high co-localization and good biocompatibility of the GNPs with GBM cells. Significant sensitization enhancement of 1.45 (P = 0.001) was observed with GNP 100 μg/mL. Similarly, at 6 Gy there was significant difference in the survival fraction between GBM alone group (Mean (M) = 0.26, Standard Deviation (SD) = 0.008) and GBM plus GNP group (M = 0.07, SD = 0.05, P = 0.03). GNPs enable radiosensitization in U87 GBM cells at 2 Gy when irradiated using a clinical platform. In addition to the potential clinical utility of GNPs, these studies demonstrate the effectiveness of a robust and easy to standardise in-vitro model that can be employed for future studies involving metal nanoparticle plus irradiation.