A randomized phase 2 trial of epigenetic priming with guadecitabine and carboplatin in platinum-resistant, recurrent ovarian cancer.
Oza AM., Matulonis UA., Alvarez Secord A., Nemunaitis J., Roman LD., Blagden SP., Banerjee S., McGuire WP., Ghamande S., Birrer MJ., Fleming GF., Markham MJ., Hirte HW., Provencher DM., Basu B., Kristeleit R., Armstrong DK., Schwartz B., Braly P., Hall GD., Nephew KP., Jueliger S., Oganesian A., Naim S., Hao Y., Keer H., Azab M., Matei D.
PURPOSE: Platinum resistance in ovarian cancer (OC) is associated with epigenetic modifications. Hypomethylating agents (HMAs) have been studied as carboplatin re-sensitizing agents in OC. This randomized phase 2 trial compared guadecitabine, a second generation HMA, and carboplatin (G+C) against second-line chemotherapy in women with measurable or detectable platinum-resistant OC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients received either G+C (guadecitabine 30 mg/m2 SC once-daily for 5 days and carboplatin) or treatment of choice (TC; topotecan, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, paclitaxel, or gemcitabine) in 28-day cycles until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary endpoints were RECIST v1.1 and CA-125 response rate, 6-month PFS, and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Of 100 patients treated, 51 received G+C and 49 received TC, of which 27 crossed over to G+C. The study did not meet its primary endpoint as the median PFS was not statistically different between arms (16.3 weeks vs 9.1 weeks in the G+C and TC groups, respectively; P = 0.07). However, the 6-month PFS rate was significantly higher in the G+C group (37% vs. 11% in TC group; P = 0.003). The incidence of grade 3 or higher toxicity was similar in G+C and TC groups (51% and 49%, respectively), with neutropenia and leukopenia being more frequent in the G+C group. CONCLUSIONS: Although this trial did not show superiority for PFS of G+C versus TC, the 6-month PFS increased in G+C treated patients. Further refinement of this strategy should focus on identification of predictive markers for patient selection.