Lobar Ventilation in Patients with COPD Assessed with the Full-Scale Airway Network Flow Model and Xenon-enhanced Dual-Energy CT.
Kim M., Doganay O., Hwang HJ., Seo JB., Gleeson FV.
Background The full-scale airway network (FAN) flow model shows excellent agreement with limited functional imaging data but requires further validation prior to clinical use. Purpose To validate the ventilation distributions computed with the FAN flow model with xenon ventilation from xenon-enhanced dual-energy (DE) CT in participants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and Methods In this prospective study, the FAN model extracted structural data from xenon-enhanced DE CT images of men with COPD scanned between June 2012 and July 2013 to compute gas ventilation dynamics. The ventilation distributions on the middle cross-section plane, percentage lobar ventilation, and ventilation heterogeneity quantified by the coefficient of variation (CV) were compared between xenon-enhanced DE CT imaging and the FAN model. The relationship between the ventilation parameters with the densitometry and pulmonary function test results was demonstrated. The agreements and correlations between the parameters were measured using the concordance correlation coefficient and the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results Twenty-two men with COPD (mean age, 67 years ± 7 [standard deviation]) were evaluated. The percentage lobar ventilation computed with FAN showed a strong positive correlation with xenon-enhanced DE CT data (r = 0.7, P < .001). Ninety-five percent of lobar ventilation CV differences lay within 95% confidence intervals. Correlations of the percentage lobar ventilation were negative for percentage emphysema (xenon-enhanced DE CT: r = -0.38, P < .001; FAN: r = -0.23, P = .02) but were positive for percentage normal tissue volume (xenon-enhanced DE CT: r = 0.78, P < .001; FAN: r = 0.45, P < .001). Lung CVs of FAN revealed negative correlations with the spirometry results (CVFAN vs percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second: r = -0.75, P < .001; CVFAN vs ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity: r = -0.67, P < .001). Conclusion The full-scale airway network modeled lobar ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease correlated with the xenon-enhanced dual-energy CT imaging data. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Parraga and Eddy in this issue.