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Dysregulation of HLA (human leukocyte antigen) function is increasingly recognized as a common escape mechanism for cancers subject to the pressures exerted by immunosurveillance or immunotherapeutic interventions. Oncolytic viruses have the potential to counter this resistance by upregulating HLA expression or encouraging an HLA-independent immunological responses. However, to achieve the best therapeutic outcomes, a prospective understanding of the HLA phenotype of cancer patients is required to match them to the characteristics of different oncolytic strategies. Here, we consider the spectrum of immune competence observed in clinical disease and discuss how it can be best addressed using this novel and powerful treatment approach.

Original publication




Journal article


Cancers (Basel)

Publication Date





class I HLA, immunosurveillance, immunotherapy, oncolytic virus