TEX264 at the intersection of autophagy and DNA repair.
Fielden J., Popović M., Ramadan K.
TEX264 (testes expressed gene 264) is a single-pass transmembrane protein, consisting of an N-terminal hydrophobic region, a gyrase inhibitory (GyrI)-like domain, and a loosely structured C terminus. TEX264 was first identified as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident Atg8-family-binding protein that mediates the degradation of portions of the ER during starvation (i.e., reticulophagy). More recently, TEX264 was identified as a cofactor of VCP/p97 ATPase that promotes the repair of covalently trapped TOP1 (DNA topoisomerase 1)-DNA crosslinks. This review summarizes the current knowledge of TEX264 as a protein with roles in both autophagy and DNA repair and provides an evolutionary and structural analysis of GyrI proteins. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, we provide evidence that TEX264 is a member of a large superfamily of GyrI-like proteins that evolved in bacteria and are present in metazoans, including invertebrates and chordates.Abbreviations: Atg8: autophagy related 8; Atg39: autophagy related 39; Cdc48: cell division cycle 48; CGAS: cyclic GMP-AMP synthase; DPC: DNA-protein crosslinks; DSB: DNA double-strand break; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; GyrI: gyrase inhibitory domain; LRR: leucine-rich repeat; MAFFT: multiple alignment using fast Fourier transform; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; STUBL: SUMO targeted ubiquitin ligase; SUMO: small ubiquitin-like modifier; TEX264: testis expressed gene 264; TOP1cc: topoisomerase 1-cleavage complex; UBZ: ubiquitin binding Zn finger domain; VCP: valosin containing protein.