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The expression of activated RAS oncogenes has been shown to increase radioresistance in a number of cell lines. The pathways by which RAS leads to radioresistance, however, are unknown. RAS activates several signal transduction pathways, with the RAF-MAP2K-MAP kinase pathway perhaps the best studied. MAP kinase has also been shown to be activated by radiation through this pathway. Given the important role of MAP kinase in multiple signaling events, we asked if radioresistance induced by RAS was mediated through the activation of MAPK. Cells of two human bladder carcinoma cell lines were used, one with a mutated oncogenic HRAS (T24) and other with a wild-type HRAS (RT4). The surviving fraction after exposure to 2 Gy of radiation (SF2) for the T24 cell lines was found to be 0.62, whereas that for RT4 cells was 0.40. Treatment with the farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) L744,832, which inhibits RAS processing and activity, decreased the SF2 of T24 cells to 0.29, whereas the SF2 of RT4 cells remained unchanged after FTI treatment, thus demonstrating the importance of RAS activation to the radiosensitivity of cells with mutated RAS. MAP kinase activation was found to be constitutive and dependent on RAS in T24 cells, while it was inducible by radiation and was independent of RAS in RT4 cells. Treatment of both cell lines with the MAP2K inhibitor PD98059 inhibited MAPK activation; however, inhibiting MAPK activation had no effect on radiation survival of T24 or RT4 cells. These data indicate that MAPK activation does not contribute to RAS-induced radioresistance in this system.


Journal article


Radiat Res

Publication Date





64 - 72


Cell Survival, Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation, Enzyme Activation, Enzyme Inhibitors, Flavonoids, Humans, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, Mutation, Radiation Tolerance, Tumor Cells, Cultured, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms, ras Proteins