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The response of cells to ionizing radiation has long been known to result in alterations in gene expression. Here we examined the expression patterns of synchronized HeLa cells in G1 or G2, after exposure to 2Gy of X-rays on microarrays allowing evaluation of over 12,000 human genes. The analysis showed induction of at least twofold for 257 different genes, after irradiation of cells in G1 and down-regulation of 42. The altered transcription patterns involved genes belonging to cell cycle pathways, DNA repair, oncogenes, histones, heat shock genes, mitochondrial and ribosomal proteins, transcription and translational regulators and genes encoding cytoskeleton components. HeLa cells are deficient in p53 and none of the induced genes have previously been identified as regulated by p53. One hundred and seventy-seven genes were up-regulated and 26 genes were down-regulated after irradiation in G2. Surprisingly most of the up-regulated genes in both phases of the cell cycle encode ribosomal proteins. These studies have revealed cell cycle dependence on radiation-induced gene induction and have permitted the identification of previously known as well as unknown genes associated with radiation-induced altered expression.


Journal article


Cancer Lett

Publication Date





221 - 233


Cell Cycle Proteins, G1 Phase, G2 Phase, Gamma Rays, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Genes, p53, HeLa Cells, Humans, Neoplasm Proteins, Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis, Ribosomal Proteins, Transcription, Genetic, Transcriptional Activation, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53