Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) produce angiogenic factors and in breast cancer are associated with high vascular grade and poor survival. TAMs preferentially migrate to hypoxic areas within tumors and strongly express hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2 alpha. This study examined whether HIF-2 alpha was involved in TAM angiogenic activation by correlating its expression with tumor microvessel density as a marker of angiogenesis, and other tumor variables, in a series of human primary invasive breast carcinomas. A correlation was found between high TAM HIF-2 alpha and high tumor vascularity (P < 0.0001), as well as high tumor grade (P = 0.007). The relation of HIF-2 alpha expression to a recently described oxygen-dependent pathway of angiogenesis was also studied, and an inverse relationship was found between TAM HIF-2 alpha and tumor thymidine phosphorylase expression (P = 0.02). These results suggest that TAM HIF-2 signaling may be a useful target for future antiangiogenic strategies but show that tumors use both oxygen-dependent and oxygen deficiency-regulated pathways for angiogenesis. Thus, combined blockade of pathways and careful assessment of these pathways in trials are necessary.


Journal article


Cancer Res

Publication Date





1326 - 1329


Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors, Breast Neoplasms, Female, Humans, Macrophages, Middle Aged, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Oxidative Stress, Thymidine Phosphorylase, Trans-Activators