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Abstract Antigen-specific immunotherapy is immunomodulatory strategy for autoimmune diseases, such as Type 1 diabetes, in which patients are treated with autoantigens to promote immune tolerance, stop autoimmune beta-cell destruction and prevent permanent dependence on exogenous insulin. In this study, human proinsulin peptide C19-A3 (known for its positive safety profile) was conjugated to ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (GNP), an attractive drug delivery platform due to the potential anti-inflammatory properties of gold. We hypothesised that microneedle intradermal delivery of C19-A3 GNP may improve peptide pharmacokinetics and induce tolerogenic immunomodulation and proceeded to evaluate its safety and feasibility in a first-in-human trial. Allowing for the limitation of the small number of participants, intradermal administration of C19-A3 GNP appears safe and well-tolerated in participants with Type 1 diabetes. The associated prolonged skin retention of C19-A3 GNP after intradermal administration offers a number of possibilities to enhance its tolerogenic potential, which should be explored in future studies.

Original publication




Journal article


Immunotherapy Advances


Oxford University Press (OUP)

Publication Date