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Hypoxia, a common consequence of solid tumor growth in breast cancer and other cancers, serves to propagate a cascade of molecular pathways which include angiogenesis, glycolysis, and alterations in microenvironmental pH. Hypoxia-inducible factors, heterodimeric DNA binding complexes composed of two subunits, provide critical regulation of this response. This review presents a synopsis of the genes induced by hypoxia in the context of breast cancer and discusses how upregulation of HIF-1 activity, and the homologous factor HIF-2, are not only fundamental for the adaptation to hypoxia but also may be critical for tumor progression.

Original publication




Journal article


Microsc Res Tech

Publication Date





41 - 48


Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors, Breast Neoplasms, Carbonic Anhydrases, Cell Hypoxia, DNA-Binding Proteins, Female, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Glycolysis, Humans, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit, Neoplasm Proteins, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Nuclear Proteins, Peptide Initiation Factors, Transcription Factors