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Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) belongs to the ATF/CREB (activating transcription factor/cyclic AMP response element binding protein) family of basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factors, which have the consensus binding site cAMP responsive element (CRE). ATF4 has numerous dimerization partners. ATF4 is induced by stress signals including anoxia/hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, amino acid deprivation, and oxidative stress. ATF4 expression is regulated transcriptionally, translationally via the PERK pathway of eIF2alpha phosphorylation, and posttranslationally by phosphorylation, which targets ATF4 to proteasomal degradation. ATF4 regulates the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress, amino acid synthesis, differentiation, metastasis and angiogenesis. Transgenic studies have demonstrated ATF4 to be involved in hematopoiesis, lens and skeletal development, fertility, proliferation, differentiation, and long-term memory. ATF4 expression is upregulated in cancer. Since ATF4 is induced by tumour microenvironmental factors, and regulates processes relevant to cancer progression, it might serve as a potential therapeutic target in cancer.

Original publication




Journal article


Int J Biochem Cell Biol

Publication Date





14 - 21


Activating Transcription Factor 4, Animals, Animals, Genetically Modified, Cell Differentiation, Gene Expression Regulation, Hematopoiesis, Humans, Hypoxia, Mice, Oxidative Stress, Transcription, Genetic