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The lack of oxygen delivery to tumor cells has profound consequences for tumor growth and correlates with poor prognosis. Some tumors contain regions of very severe hypoxia called anoxia, which constitutes a functionally different state to hypoxia. In response to anoxia, mammalian cells induce coordinated cytoprotective programs that are critical for tumor survival: the unfolded protein response and integrated stress response. Therefore, targeting additional components of anoxic pathways, besides the hypoxia-inducible response, may be effective for future anticancer therapies.

Original publication




Journal article


Clin Cancer Res

Publication Date





2537 - 2540


Activating Transcription Factor 4, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Humans, Hypoxia, Neoplasm Proteins, Neoplasms, Protein Biosynthesis, Protein Folding, Transcription, Genetic, eIF-2 Kinase