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Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel development from preexisting vasculature. Although vascular endothelium is usually quiescent in the adult, active angiogenesis has been shown to be an important process for new vessel formation, tumor growth, progression, and spread. The angiogenic phenotype depends on the balance of proangiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inhibitors, as well as interactions with the extracellular matrix, allowing for endothelial migration. Endocrine glands are typically vascular organs, and their blood supply is essential for normal function and tight control of hormone feedback loops. In addition to metabolic factors such as hypoxia, the process of angiogenesis is also regulated by hormonal changes such as increased estrogen, IGF-I, and TSH levels. By measuring microvascular density, differences in angiogenesis have been related to differences in tumor behavior, and similar techniques have been applied to both benign and malignant endocrine tumors with the aim of identification of tumors that subsequently behave in an aggressive fashion. In contrast to other tumor types, pituitary tumors are less vascular than normal pituitary tissue, although the mechanism for this observation is not known. A relationship between angiogenesis and tumor size, tumor invasiveness, and aggressiveness has been shown in some pituitary tumor types, but not in others. There are few reports on the role of microvascular density or angiogenic factors in adrenal tumors. The mechanism of the vascular tumors, which include adrenomedullary tumors, found in patients with Von Hippel Lindau disease has been well characterized, and clinical trials of antiangiogenic therapy are currently being performed in patients with Von Hippel Lindau disease. Thyroid tumors are more vascular than normal thyroid tissue, and there is a clear correlation between increased VEGF expression and more aggressive thyroid tumor behavior and metastasis. Although parathyroid tissue induces angiogenesis when autotransplanted and PTH regulates both VEGF and MMP expression, there are few studies of angiogenesis and angiogenic factors in parathyroid tumors. An understanding of the balance of angiogenesis in these vascular tumors and mechanisms of vascular control may assist in therapeutic decisions and allow appropriately targeted treatment.

Original publication




Journal article


Endocr Rev

Publication Date





600 - 632


Adrenal Gland Neoplasms, Angiogenesis Inducing Agents, Angiogenesis Inhibitors, Animals, Carcinoid Tumor, Endocrine Gland Neoplasms, Gastrointestinal Neoplasms, Humans, Matrix Metalloproteinases, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Neuroendocrine Tumors, Parathyroid Neoplasms, Pituitary Neoplasms, Thyroid Neoplasms, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A