Successful gelfoam angioembolisation in anastomotic pseudoaneurysm: A case report.
Chan DK-H., Tan K-K.
INTRODUCTION: The use of angioembolisation in patients with lower gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage has become well established, especially in cases of diverticular bleeding, or in bleeding from arterio-venous malformations. Pseudoaneurysms are rare and the evaluation of selective gelfoam angioembolisation amongst patients with lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding secondary to this etiology has not been extensively studied. The friable nature of pseudoaneurysms may lead to a greater risk of rupture during an attempted angioembolisation procedure. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We describe the successful treatment and outcome of a lady who initially presented with perforation of the colon at the rectosigmoid junction, for which she underwent resection and anastomosis. A few days later, she was noted to have persistent hematochezia, which was secondary to bleeding pseudoaneurysms at the rectosigmoid branches of the inferior mesenteric artery. She successfully underwent selective angioembolisation of these pseudoaneurysms with gelfoam. She did not suffer any complications from the procedure. DISCUSSION: Although there have been significant advances in the armamentarium associated with percutaneous interventional radiology procedures for hemostasis in gastrointestinal bleeding, the use of selective angioembolisation for bleeding pseudoaneurysms have not been readily adopted due to the friable nature of the wall of the pseudoaneurysm, and its risk for rupture. Our case report illustrates that angioembolisation in such cases is feasible, and should be a consideration especially when the risk of surgical intervention is high. CONCLUSION: Selective gelfoam angioembolisation should be considered in the management of patients with bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract secondary to pseudoaneurysms.