Impact of arsenite and its methylated metabolites on PARP-1 activity, PARP-1 gene expression and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in cultured human cells.
Walter I., Schwerdtle T., Thuy C., Parsons JL., Dianov GL., Hartwig A.
The underlying mechanisms of arsenic carcinogenicity are still not fully understood. Mechanisms currently discussed include the induction of oxidative DNA damage and the interference with DNA repair pathways. Still unclear is the role of biomethylation, which has long been considered to be one major detoxification process. Methylated arsenicals have recently been shown to interfere with DNA repair in cellular and subcellular systems, but up to now no DNA repair protein has been identified being particular sensitive towards methylated arsenicals in cultured cells. Here we report that the trivalent methylated metabolites MMA(III) and DMA(III) inhibit poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in cultured human HeLa S3 cells at concentrations as low as 1nM, thereby showing for the first time an inactivation of an enzymatic reaction related to DNA repair by the trivalent methylated arsenicals at very low environmentally relevant concentrations. In contrast the pentavalent metabolites MMA(V) and DMA(V) showed no such effects up to high micromolar concentrations. All investigated arsenicals did not alter gene expression of PARP-1. However, all trivalent arsenicals were able to inhibit the activity of isolated PARP-1, indicating that the observed decrease in poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in cultures human cells, predominantly mediated by PARP-1, is likely due to changes in the activity of PARP-1. Since poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation plays a major role in DNA repair, cell cycle control and thus in the maintenance of genomic stability, these findings could in part explain DNA repair inhibition and the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of arsenic.