Repair of abasic sites in DNA.
Dianov GL., Sleeth KM., Dianova II., Allinson SL.
Repair of both normal and reduced AP sites is activated by AP endonuclease, which recognizes and cleaves a phosphodiester bond 5' to the AP site. For a short period of time an incised AP site is occupied by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and then DNA polymerase beta adds one nucleotide into the repair gap and simultaneously removes the 5'-sugar phosphate. Finally, the DNA ligase III/XRCC1 complex accomplishes repair by sealing disrupted DNA ends. However, long-patch BER pathway, which is involved in the removal of reduced abasic sites, requires further DNA synthesis resulting in strand displacement and the generation of a damage-containing flap that is later removed by the flap endonuclease. Strand-displacement DNA synthesis is accomplished by DNA polymerase delta/epsilon and DNA ligase I restores DNA integrity. DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase delta/epsilon is dependent on proliferating cell nuclear antigen, which also stimulates the DNA ligase I and flap endonuclease. These repair events are supported by multiple protein-protein interactions.