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Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) using the radiotracer 18F-Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) has been widely employed to image tumour hypoxia and is of interest to help develop novel hypoxia modifiers and guide radiation treatment planning. Yet, the optimal post-injection (p.i.) timing of hypoxic imaging remains questionable. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between hypoxia-related quantitative values in FMISO-PET acquired at 2 and 4 h p.i. in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with resectable NSCLC participated in the ATOM clinical trial (NCT02628080) which investigated the hypoxia modifying effects of atovaquone. Two-hour and four-hour FMISO PET/CT images acquired at baseline and pre-surgery visits (n = 58) were compared. Cohort 1 (n = 14) received atovaquone treatment, while cohort 2 (n = 15) did not. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (ρ) assessed the relationship between hypoxia-related metrics, including standardised uptake value (SUV), tumour-to-blood ratio (TBR), and tumour hypoxic volume (HV) defined by voxels with TBR ≥ 1.4. As the primary imaging-related trial endpoint used to evaluate the action of atovaquone on tumour hypoxia in patients with NSCLC was change in tumour HV from baseline, this was also assessed in patients (n = 20) with sufficient baseline 2- and 4-h scan HV to reliably measure change (predefined as ≥ 1.5 mL). Tumours were divided into four subregions or distance categories: edge, outer, inner, and centre, using MATLAB. In tumours overall, strong correlation (P 

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Humans, Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung, Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography, Atovaquone, Radiopharmaceuticals, Lung Neoplasms, Misonidazole, Positron-Emission Tomography, Hypoxia, Cell Hypoxia