Mutant IDH in Gliomas: Role in Cancer and Treatment Options.
Solomou G., Finch A., Asghar A., Bardella C.
Altered metabolism is a common feature of many cancers and, in some cases, is a consequence of mutation in metabolic genes, such as the ones involved in the TCA cycle. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is mutated in many gliomas and other cancers. Physiologically, IDH converts isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), but when mutated, IDH reduces α-KG to D2-hydroxyglutarate (D2-HG). D2-HG accumulates at elevated levels in IDH mutant tumours, and in the last decade, a massive effort has been made to develop small inhibitors targeting mutant IDH. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge about the cellular and molecular consequences of IDH mutations and the therapeutic approaches developed to target IDH mutant tumours, focusing on gliomas.