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Diffuse gliomas are the most frequent brain tumours, representing 75% of all primary malignant brain tumours in adults. Because of their locally aggressive behaviour and the fact that they cannot be cured by current therapies, they represent one of the most devastating cancers. The present review summarises recent advances in our understanding of glioma development and progression by use of various in vitro and in vivo models, as well as more complex techniques including cultures of 3D organoids and organotypic slices. We discuss the progress that has been made in understanding glioma heterogeneity, alteration in gene expression and DNA methylation, as well as advances in various in silico models. Lastly current treatment options and future clinical trials, which aim to improve early diagnosis and disease monitoring, are also discussed.

Original publication




Journal article


Int J Mol Sci

Publication Date





clinical trial, diffuse gliomas, experimental models, glioma heterogeneity, Adult, Animals, Brain Neoplasms, DNA Methylation, Disease Models, Animal, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Glioma, Humans