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Understanding prostate carcinogenesis is crucial not only for identifying new treatment targets but also for developing effective strategies to manage the asymptomatic form of the disease. There is a lack of consensus about predicting the indolent form of the disease prostate cancer, leading to uncertainties regarding treatment initiation. This review aims to enhance the assessment and management of early prostate cancer by providing a comprehensive picture of the molecular anatomy of the prostate, synthesising current evidence, highlighting knowledge gaps, and identifying future directions. It presents evidence for the efficacy of active surveillance as an alternative treatment strategy and its potential benefits in specific patient groups through androgen receptor disruption. Overall, an improved understanding of prostate carcinogenesis and its molecular underpinnings can pave the way for tailored and precise management approaches for this common cancer. Further development and validation of molecule-based assessment tools are needed. Integrating genomic, proteomic, and phenotypic models, as well as functional approaches, can help predict outcomes. This facilitates selecting candidates for active surveillance and targeting interventions for higher-risk cases, contributing to more precise management strategies.

Original publication




Journal article





Publication Date





300 - 319