Neonatal screening for hemoglobinopathies: results of a public health system in South Brazil.
Wagner SC., de Castro SM., Gonzalez TP., Santin AP., Zaleski CF., Azevedo LA., Dreau H., Henderson S., Old J., Hutz MH.
AIM: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in South Brazil. METHODS: Samples of dried blood spots collected by heel prick in neonates were evaluated by isoeletric focusing and/or high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. All variants were characterized at the molecular level. RESULTS: A total of 437,787 samples were evaluated. Among these, 6391 showed an abnormal hemoglobin pattern. These included 48 cases (0.01%) of sickle cell disorders (33 hemoglobin SS [Hb SS], 7 Hb SC, 7 Hb S/beta thalassemia, 1 Hb SD), 1 neonate who was homozygous for beta thalassemia, 6272 (1.4%) newborns who were heterozygous for Hb S, C, or D, and 71 (0.02%) neonates who were carriers for rare hemoglobin variants. Most of these rare variants were identified for the first time in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing these results with those obtained in other Brazilian regions, we observe a highly heterogeneous distribution. This knowledge is useful in healthcare planning and allocation of resources, as well as identifying at-risk couples, which will assist with disease prevention.