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Biparatopic CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen (MAb) was newly designed and tested as to whether it enhanced the accuracy of tumor detection by reducing non-specific binding in experimental radioimmunoguided surgery. Biparatopic MAb was prepared by using cross-linking of reduced Fab' fragments from PR1A3 and T84.66. Fifty-nine tumors from 2 human colorectal carcinoma cell lines with high (KM-12c) and low (Clone A) carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) expression were successfully implanted subcutaneously on the backs of 42 nude mice. Tumors were localized using 125I-labeled MAbs: IgG, F(ab')(2) and Fab' of PR1A3, and biparatopic MAb of PR1A3 and T84.66. Radioactivity counted on a portable radioisotope detector correlated well with that counted on a gamma counter (p < 0.001). Accumulations of radioactivity in control mice without tumorigenesis were the greatest in PR1A3 IgG-pretreated mice and the least in biparatopic MAb-pretreated mice. Tumors of 2 cell lines did not differ in the distribution of radiolabeled MAbs. Localization indices of the tumor in various organs revealed 1.3 to 4.1 in PR1A3 IgG-pretreated mice, 2.4 to 6.6 in fragment MAbs of PR1A3-pretreated mice and 2 to 4.6 in biparatopic MAb-pretreated mice. Silver grains and immune staining were predominantly distributed in tumor cells of all types of MAb-pretreated mice. Sensitivity and specificity of tumor localization by radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS) were the highest in the biparatopic MAb-pretreated mice (90.9% and 94.5%, respectively) and the least in the PR1A3 IgG-pretreated mice (50% and 72%). The biparatopic MAb using 2 anti-CEA MAbs against different epitopes achieved a great affinity and avidity with accurate localization of colorectal carcinoma in experimental radioimmunoguided surgery.


Journal article


Int J Cancer

Publication Date





542 - 547


Adenocarcinoma, Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antibody Specificity, Biomarkers, Tumor, Carcinoembryonic Antigen, Colorectal Neoplasms, Epitopes, Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments, Immunoglobulin G, Iodine Radioisotopes, Mice, Mice, Nude, Neoplasm Proteins, Neoplasm Transplantation, Protein Structure, Tertiary, Radioimmunodetection, Radiometry, Sensitivity and Specificity, Surgery, Computer-Assisted, Technetium, Tissue Distribution, Transplantation, Heterologous, Tumor Cells, Cultured