Control of gene expression and the cell cycle.
Chan HM., Shikama N., La Thangue NB.
The pRb tumour suppressor protein is an essential component of the cell-cycle clock, integrating both positive and negative signals for cellular growth and proliferation with the transcription machinery. pRb exerts its tumour suppression function by both antagonizing and synergizing with downstream effectors, such as E2F. pRb has two modes of action, it can inactivate E2F transcription activity or it can assemble an active repression complex with E2F. Apart from E2F, pRb interacts with various factors to promote cellular differentiation. The differentiation properties of pRb are likely to contribute partly to its tumour suppressor function. It is also clear that pRb is a master regulator for transcription. It can both activate and repress transcription in a context-dependent manner. pRb interacts directly with histone acetyltransferase, histone deacetylases and SWI/SNF proteins, all of which are classes of proteins involved in chromatin remodelling. Last, but not least, pRb regulates transcription driven by all three polymerases, thereby integrating the cell-cycle clock with the biosynthetic capacity of the cell in controlling cellular proliferation and growth.