E2F and cell cycle control: a double-edged sword.
Stevens C., La Thangue NB.
The E2F family of transcription factors plays a central role in regulating cellular proliferation by controlling the expression of both the genes required for cell cycle progression, particularly DNA synthesis, and the genes involved with apoptosis. E2F is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, principally through its temporal association with pocket protein family members, the prototype member being the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. Pocket proteins are, in turn, regulated through phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk). The kinase activity of cyclin/cdk complexes is negatively regulated by cdk inhibitors, and thus both positive and negative growth regulatory signals impinge on E2F activity. Different E2F family members exhibit distinct cell cycle and apoptotic activities. Thus, E2F appears to play a pivotal role in coordinating events connected with proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis.