Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic growth factor with a key role in many physiological and pathological processes. Investigation into the implications of circulating levels of this cytokine is progressing at an exponential rate. However, there are important inconsistencies between reports ranging from method of sample collection, processing, software manipulation and data interpretation and controversy as to whether plasma, serum or whole blood will provide the best prognostic information. Different techniques of centrifugation and temperature on sample handling and the impact of in vitro collection of blood on subsequent VEGF results have not been fully appreciated. We provide a critical review of the literature, report the results of our further investigations, suggest a uniform protocol for handling blood samples and highlight previously unsuspected problems in data interpretation.


Journal article


Clin Exp Metastasis

Publication Date





651 - 663


Blood Specimen Collection, Endothelial Growth Factors, Hematocrit, Humans, Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Lymphokines, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Neovascularization, Physiologic, Platelet Count, Prognosis, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors