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Evaluation of the intracellular distribution of radionuclides used for targeted radiotherapy (tRT) is essential for accurate dosimetry. Therefore, a direct and quantitative method for subcellular micro-autoradiography using radiation sensitive polymers (PMMA, UV1116 and AZ40XT) was developed. The electron exposure dose in radio-labelled cells due to Auger and internal conversion (IC) electron emissions of indium (¹¹¹In), a radionuclide currently used for tRT, was calculated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Electron beam lithography using pre-defined exposure doses was used to calibrate the resist response. The topography of the exposed and developed resists was analysed with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the resulting pattern depth was related to a specific exposure dose. UV1116 exhibited the best contrast as compared to AZ40XT and PMMA, while AZ40XT exhibited the highest sensitivity at low doses (<10 μC/cm²). AFM analysis of the exposure pattern from radio-labelled cells and nuclei in UV1116 revealed a non-uniform distribution of ¹¹¹In-EGF in the cell and nucleus, consistent with less well-resolved data from confocal microscopy and micro-autoradiography.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





6138 - 6144


Autoradiography, Light, Microscopy, Atomic Force, Photochemistry, Polymethyl Methacrylate, Radiotherapy