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Cells undergo a variety of biological responses when placed in hypoxic conditions, including activation of signalling pathways that regulate proliferation, angiogenesis and death. Cancer cells have adapted these pathways, allowing tumours to survive and even grow under hypoxic conditions, and tumour hypoxia is associated with poor prognosis and resistance to radiation therapy. Many elements of the hypoxia-response pathway are therefore good candidates for therapeutic targeting.

Original publication




Journal article


Nat Rev Cancer

Publication Date





38 - 47


Animals, Antineoplastic Agents, Apoptosis, Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator, Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors, Cell Division, Cell Hypoxia, Cell Survival, Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein, DNA Damage, DNA-Binding Proteins, Dimerization, Embryonic and Fetal Development, Endothelial Growth Factors, Erythropoietin, Forecasting, Gene Expression Regulation, Glycolysis, Humans, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit, Lymphokines, Mice, NF-kappa B, Neoplasms, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Nuclear Proteins, Oxidation-Reduction, Oxidative Stress, Oxygen, Prodrugs, Proto-Oncogene Proteins, Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon, Signal Transduction, Trans-Activators, Transcription Factors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors, Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays