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Flame ionization technology has been used in an attempt to enhance the performance of exterior surface coatings with timber through an improvement in the wettability of the wood. Preliminary surface energy data indicate that total surface energy values can indeed be improved by an increase in the polar component of the energy. Flame treatment is not affected by surface preparation prior to treatment, although the response of the surface may be influenced by the amount of polar extractives in the timber.

Original publication




Journal article


International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives

Publication Date





107 - 114