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The aim of the study was to compare the angiogenic status, potential qualitative differences in microvessels and carbonic anhydrase IX expression in bone-marrow (BM) metastases and different haematological tumours at time of diagnosis. The microvessel density (MVD), endothelial-cell proliferation (ECP) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) immunoreactivity were determined on 210 trephine biopsies from 57 patients with multiple myeloma (MM), 13 with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), 48 with chronic myeloproliferative syndrome (CMPS), 26 with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), 25 with epithelial BM metastases, 18 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and from a control group composed of 23 patients without haematological neoplasm. There was an increased MVD and ECP in epithelial BM metastases, MM, AML, CMPS and in a part of CLL. While an ECP greater than 0 was detected in 72% of MM, 75% of CMPS and 92% of AML, it was invariably observed (100%) in the BM metastases. The absence of ECP together with a MVD comparable with the control group in our MGUS cases supports the view that MGUS is a pre-angiogenic condition. Qualitative differences in microvessels were associated with growth patterns in MM and CLL and were observed between the different entities of CMPS. In one-third of the epithelial BM metastases, there was a focal CA IX immunoreactivity, which was never observed in the haematological diseases.

Original publication




Journal article


Virchows Arch

Publication Date





27 - 35


Antigens, Neoplasm, Biomarkers, Tumor, Biopsy, Bone Marrow Neoplasms, Capillaries, Carbonic Anhydrase IX, Carbonic Anhydrases, Cell Division, Endothelium, Vascular, Hematologic Neoplasms, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Microcirculation, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Paraproteinemias