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Breast cancer cell lines migrated towards a BMP-2 source depending on BMP-2 concentration. After a short exposure to BMP-2, the cells were able to migrate through matrigel. MCF-7 cells transfected with the BMP-2 gene also showed enhanced migratory properties and high expression of the metastasis-related gene BCSG1. In a xenograft model without estrogen supplementation MCF-7/BMP-2 cells formed tumors. These tumors were characterised by an enhanced vasculature and the formation of chondroid and osseous structures. In conclusion elevated levels of BMP-2 enhance the tumorigenic properties of breast carcinoma cells and drive the cells towards a more aggressive phenotype with estrogen independent growth.


Journal article


Int J Oncol

Publication Date





401 - 407


Animals, Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal, Blotting, Western, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Breast Neoplasms, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Movement, Chemotactic Factors, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Female, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental, Mice, Mice, Nude, NIH 3T3 Cells, Neoplasm Invasiveness, RNA, Messenger, Tamoxifen, Time Factors, Transforming Growth Factor beta