Breast density characterization using texton distributions.
Petroudi S., Brady M.
Breast density has been shown to be one of the most significant risks for developing breast cancer, with women with dense breasts at four to six times higher risk. The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) has a four class classification scheme that describes the different breast densities. However, there is great inter and intra observer variability among clinicians in reporting a mammogram's density class. This work presents a novel texture classification method and its application for the development of a completely automated breast density classification system. The new method represents the mammogram using textons, which can be thought of as the building blocks of texture under the operational definition of Leung and Malik as clustered filter responses. The new proposed method characterizes the mammographic appearance of the different density patterns by evaluating the texton spatial dependence matrix (TDSM) in the breast region's corresponding texton map. The TSDM is a texture model that captures both statistical and structural texture characteristics. The normalized TSDM matrices are evaluated for mammograms from the different density classes and corresponding texture models are established. Classification is achieved using a chi-square distance measure. The fully automated TSDM breast density classification method is quantitatively evaluated on mammograms from all density classes from the Oxford Mammogram Database. The incorporation of texton spatial dependencies allows for classification accuracy reaching over 82%. The breast density classification accuracy is better using texton TSDM compared to simple texton histograms.