Modulation of density and orientation of amphiphilic DNA anchored to phospholipid membranes. I. Supported lipid bilayers.
Gambinossi F., Banchelli M., Durand A., Berti D., Brown T., Caminati G., Baglioni P.
In the present series of papers, we describe the results of a systematic study on the anchoring of cholesterol-tagged oligonucleotides to phospholipids bilayers followed by membrane-assisted hybridization of the complementary strand in solution. This paper describes the anchoring of novel cholesterol-modified DNA-18mers in supported lipid bilayers (SLB) of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: we compared the behavior of two anchoring functionalities differing in the number of cholesterol units and in the length of a spacer group. Quartz Crystal Microbalance with impedance monitoring (QCM-Z) measurements showed that both oligonucleotides insert into the bilayer membrane through cholesterol anchoring; however, dramatic differences, in terms of surface organization and thickness, are found as the number of anchoring units increases. In the case of multiple cholesterol units, a peculiar three-regimes concentration dependence was revealed and correlated to the effective size of the adsorbing units. Interestingly, for high oligonucleotide concentration, the adsorption process was rationalized in terms of a compaction model of amphiphilic DNA molecules. QCM-Z temperature cycles of the SLB-anchored double strands provided clear evidence for reversible hybridization at the bilayer interface.