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With the development of new imaging techniques, the potential for probing the molecular, cellular, and structural components of the tumor microenvironment in situ has increased dramatically. A multitude of imaging modalities have been successfully employed to probe different aspects of the tumor microenvironment, including expression of molecules, cell motion, cellularity, vessel permeability, vascular perfusion, metabolic and physiological changes, apoptosis, and inflammation. This chapter focuses on the most recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging methods, which offer a number of advantages over other methodologies, including high spatial resolution and the use of nonionizing radiation, as well as the use of such methods in the context of primary and secondary brain tumors. It also highlights how they can be used to assess the molecular and cellular changes in the tumor microenvironment in response to therapy.

Original publication





Publication Date





263 - 283


Animals, Blood Volume Determination, Brain Neoplasms, Contrast Media, Humans, Inflammation, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Molecular Probes, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Regional Blood Flow, Spin Labels, Tumor Microenvironment