Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a cytokine that is involved in tumor angiogenesis. Wild-type p53 (wt-p53) protein has been shown in cell lines to suppress angiogenesis through thrombospondin regulation. In this study, we immunohistochemically examined the expression of VEGF, nuclear and wild-type cytoplasmic p53, bcl-2, epidermal growth factor receptor, and c-erbB-2 oncoprotein; vascular grade; proliferation index; and extent of necrosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed 120 cases of early-stage NSCLCs (81 squamous cell carcinomas and 39 adenocarcinomas) treated with surgery alone (median follow-up, 63 months; range, 45-74 months). VEGF expression showed a positive association with high vascular grade (microvessel score of >75 per x250 field; P = 0.008), although about half of the LVG cases also expressed VEGF. None of the p53 antibodies examined correlated with angiogenesis. However, wt-p53 expression was inversely associated with VEGF expression, suggesting that wt-p53 is involved in the suppression of the VEGF gene. Combined analysis of VEGF, wt-p53, and microvessel counting showed that, although wt-p53 loss associates with VEGF switch-on, p53 protein may not be involved in the regulation of the angiogenic events downstream of VEGF expression. Moreover, no significant association of bcl-2 and c-erbB-2 oncoprotein expression with VEGF expression was observed. T/N stage, grade, Ki67 proliferation index, and extent of necrosis were not correlated with VEGF expression. Survival analysis showed that VEGF correlated with poor survival (P = 0.04) and was significant in node-negative cases (P = 0.03). We conclude that VEGF is an important angiogenic factor in NSCLC, its expression being dependent on wt-p53 loss.


Journal article


Clin Cancer Res

Publication Date





3017 - 3024


Aged, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Biomarkers, Tumor, Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung, Cell Differentiation, Endothelial Growth Factors, ErbB Receptors, Female, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Lung, Lung Neoplasms, Lymphokines, Male, Middle Aged, Mitotic Index, Neoplasm Staging, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2, Receptor, ErbB-2, Survival Rate, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors