Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

This study was undertaken to investigate the associations of blood vessel invasion (BVI), lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) or other variables and long-term survival in 173 Japanese and 184 British patients with primary invasive breast cancer, and whether they are associated with survival differences between Japanese and British patients. BVI was detected by objective methods, using both factor VIII-related antigen (F-VIII) staining and elastica van Gieson (E v G) staining. BVI was classified into three subtypes. 1) BVI e, BVI detected by E v G staining alone, 2) BVI f, BVI detected by F-VIII staining alone, 3) BVIef, BVI evaluated by combining BVIf and BVIe. LVI was also detected by objective methods, using lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1) staining alone. There was a borderline significance between the frequencies for BVIef of British patients and those of Japanese patients (8.2% vs 3.5%; P = 0.06) but not for LVI (P = 0.36). British patients had a significantly worse relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than Japanese patients (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively) even though their tumors were smaller and more ER-positive with a similar prevalence of lymph-node involvement. LVI was not significantly associated with RFS and OS, however, BVIef positive tumors had a significantly worse RFS and OS compared with BVIef negative patients, after statistical adjustment for the other variables (P = 0.02, P = 0.01, respectively). The present study shows that BVIef variability might contribute to the Japanese and British disparities in breast cancer outcomes.


Journal article


Int J Clin Exp Pathol

Publication Date





7967 - 7978


Breast cancer, KDR/Flk-1, LYVE-1 staining, blood vessel invasion, ethnicity, lymphatic vessel invasion, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Asian Continental Ancestry Group, Biomarkers, Tumor, Breast Neoplasms, European Continental Ancestry Group, Factor VIII, Female, Humans, Japan, Lymphatic Metastasis, Middle Aged, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Prognosis, Survival Rate, United Kingdom, Young Adult